Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of significant accounting policies

Summary of significant accounting policies
12 Months Ended
Jul. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements Disclosure and Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

Note 1 - Summary of significant accounting policies

Nature of business

Enzo Biochem, Inc. (the “Company”) is an integrated life science and biotechnology company engaged in research, development, manufacturing and marketing of diagnostic and research products based on genetic engineering, biotechnology and molecular biology. These products are designed for the diagnosis of and/or screening for infectious diseases, cancers, genetic defects and other medically pertinent diagnostic information and are distributed in the United States and internationally. The Company is conducting research and development activities in the development of therapeutic products based on the Company’s technology platform of genetic modulation and immune modulation. The Company also operates a clinical laboratory that offers and provides molecular and esoteric diagnostic medical testing services in the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut medical communities. The Company operates in three segments (see Note 15).

Principles of consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Enzo Clinical Labs, Inc., Enzo Life Sciences, Inc. (and its wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries), Enzo Therapeutics, Inc. and Enzo Realty LLC (“Realty”). All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying footnotes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Foreign Currency Translation/Transactions

The Company has determined that the functional currency for its foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. For financial reporting purposes, assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at current exchange rates and profit and loss accounts are translated at weighted average exchange rates. Resulting translation gains and losses are included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity as accumulated other comprehensive income or loss. Gains or losses resulting from transactions entered into in other than the functional currency are recorded as foreign exchange gains and losses in the consolidated statements of operations.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of demand deposits with banks and highly liquid money market funds. At July 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had cash and cash equivalents in foreign bank accounts of $0.4 million and $0.5 million, respectively.

Fair Values of Financial Instruments

The recorded amounts of the Company’s cash and equivalents, receivables, loan payable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values principally because of the short-term nature of these items.

Concentration of credit risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable.

The Company believes the fair value of the aforementioned financial instruments approximates the cost due to the immediate or short-term nature of these items.

Concentration of credit risk with respect to the Company’s Life Sciences products segment is mitigated by the diversity of the Company’s clients and their dispersion across many different geographic regions. To reduce risk, the Company routinely assesses the financial strength of these customers and, consequently, believes that its accounts receivable credit exposure with respect to these customers is limited.

The Company believes that the concentration of credit risk with respect to the Clinical Laboratory services accounts receivable is mitigated by the diversity of third party payers that insure individuals. To reduce risk, the Company routinely assesses the financial strength of these payers and, consequently, believes that its accounts receivable credit risk exposure, with respect to these payers, is limited. While the Company also has receivables due from the Federal Medicare program, the Company does not believe that these receivables represent a credit risk since the Medicare program is funded by the federal government and payment is primarily dependent on our submitting the appropriate documentation.

Accrual for Self-Funded Medical

Accruals for self-funded medical insurance are determined based on a number of assumptions and factors, including historical payment trends, claims history and current estimates. These estimated liabilities are not discounted. If actual trends differ from these estimates, the financial results could be impacted.

Revenue Recognition - Product revenues

Revenues from product sales are recognized when the products are shipped and title transfers, typically upon shipment by common carrier.


Royalty revenues are recorded in the period earned. Royalties received in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenues.

Clinical laboratory services

Revenues from the Clinical Laboratory services segment are recognized upon completion of the testing process for a specific patient and reported to the ordering physician. These revenues and the associated accounts receivable are based on gross amounts billed or billable for services rendered, net of a contractual adjustment, which is the difference between amounts billed to payers and the expected reimbursable settlements from such payers.

The following table summarizes the Clinical Laboratory Services segment’s net revenues and revenue percentages by revenue category:

    Years Ended July 31,
    2018     2017     2016  
Revenue category   Amount     %     Amount     %     Amount     %  
Third-party payers   $ 41,370       56     $ 43,059       56     $ 34,454       49  
Medicare     12,111       16       12,705       16       11,392       16  
HMO’s     11,359       15       10,263       13       10,325       14  
Patient self-pay     9,937       13       11,380       15       14,744       21  
Total   $ 74,777       100 %   $ 77,407       100 %   $ 70,915       100 %

The Company provides services to certain patients covered by various third-party payers, including the Federal Medicare program. Laws and regulations governing Medicare are complex and subject to interpretation for which action for noncompliance includes fines, penalties and exclusion from the Medicare programs.

Other than the Medicare program, one provider whose programs are included in the “Third-party payers” and “Health Maintenance Organizations” (“HMO’s”) categories represent approximately 39%, 39% and 30% of the Clinical Laboratory Services segment net revenue for the years ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 respectively. The Company currently uses one third party reference lab for certain clinical laboratory services we provide which represents 12% of the consolidated purchases for the year ended July 31, 2018.

Contractual Adjustment

The Company’s estimate of contractual adjustment is based on significant assumptions and judgments, such as its interpretation of payer reimbursement policies, and bears the risk of change. The estimation process is based on the experience of amounts approved as reimbursable and ultimately settled by payers, versus the corresponding gross amount billed to the respective payers. The contractual adjustment is an estimate that reduces gross revenue based on gross billing rates to amounts expected to be approved and reimbursed. Gross billings are based on a standard fee schedule the Company sets for all third-party payers, including Medicare, HMO’s and managed care providers. The Company adjusts the contractual adjustment estimate quarterly, based on its evaluation of current and historical settlement experience with payers, industry reimbursement trends, and other relevant factors which include the monthly and quarterly review of: 1) current gross billings and receivables and reimbursement by payer, 2) current changes in third party arrangements and 3) the growth of in-network provider arrangements and managed care plans specific to our Company.

During the years ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the contractual adjustment percentages, determined using current and historical reimbursement statistics, were approximately 85%, 84% and 84%, respectively, of gross billings.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts receivable are reported at realizable value, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, which is estimated and recorded in the period of the related revenue.

For the Clinical Laboratory Services segment, the allowance for doubtful accounts represents amounts that the Company does not expect to collect after the Company has exhausted its collection procedures. The Company estimates its allowance for doubtful accounts in the period the related services are billed and reduces the allowance in future accounting periods based on write-offs during those periods. It bases the estimate for the allowance on the evaluation of historical experience of accounts going to collections and the net amounts not received. Accounts going to collection include the balances, after receipt of the approved settlements from third party payers, for the insufficient diagnosis information received from the ordering physician which results in denials of payment, and our estimate of the uncollected portion of receivables from self-payers, including deductibles and copayments, which are subject to credit risk and patients’ ability to pay. The Company fully reserves through its contractual allowances amounts that have not been written off because the payer’s filing date deadline has not occurred or the collection process has not been exhausted. The Company adjusts the historical collection analysis for recoveries, if any, on an on-going basis. As of July 31, 2018, approximately 23% of Clinical Labs receivables are from two payers.

The Company’s ability to collect outstanding receivables from third-party payers is critical to its operating performance and cash flows. The primary collection risk lies with uninsured patients or patients for whom primary insurance has paid but a patient portion remains outstanding. The Company also assesses the current state of its billing functions in order to identify any known collection issues and to assess the impact, if any, on the allowance estimates which involves judgment. The Company believes that the collectability of its receivables is directly linked to the quality of its billing processes, most notably, those related to obtaining the correct information in order to bill effectively for the services provided. Should circumstances change (e.g. shift in payer mix, decline in economic conditions or deterioration in aging of receivables), our estimates of net realizable value of receivables could be reduced by a material amount.

The allowance for doubtful accounts as a percentage of total accounts receivable at July 31, 2018 and 2017 was 16.9% and 19.1% respectively.

The Clinical Laboratory Services segment’s net receivables are detailed by billing category and as a percent to its total net receivables. At July 31, 2018 and 2017, approximately 74% and 75% respectively, of the Company’s net accounts receivable relates to its Clinical Laboratory Services business, which operates in the New York, New Jersey and Connecticut medical communities.

The Life Sciences products segment’s accounts receivable includes royalties receivable of $0 million and $0.4 million, as of July 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due from QIAGEN Gaithersburg Inc. (“Qiagen”) (see Note 12).

The following is a table of the Company’s net accounts receivable by segment.

    July 31, 2018     July 31, 2017  
Net accounts receivable by segment   Amount     %     Amount     %  
Clinical Labs (by billing category)                                
Third party payers   $ 4,692       48     $ 7,256       64  
Patient self-pay     2,010       20       1,591       14  
Medicare     1,740       18       1,385       12  
HMO’s     1,329       14       1,169       10  
Total Clinical Labs     9,771       100 %     11,401       100 %
Total Life Sciences     3,376               3,779          
Total accounts receivable – net   $ 13,147             $ 15,180          

Changes in the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts are as follows:

    July 31, 2018     July 31, 2017  
Beginning balance   $ 3,576     $ 3,517  
Provision for doubtful accounts     3,690       2,775  
Write-offs     (4,598 )     (2,716 )
Ending balance   $ 2,668     $ 3,576  


The Company values inventory at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value. Work-in-process and finished goods inventories consist of material, labor, and manufacturing overhead. Write downs of inventories to net realizable value are based on a review of inventory quantities on hand and estimated sales forecasts based on sales history and anticipated future demand. Unanticipated changes in demand could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and require additional write downs of inventory which would impact our results of operations.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, and depreciated on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the various asset classes as follows: building and building improvements: 15-30 years, and laboratory machinery and equipment and office furniture and computer equipment which range from 3-10 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the term of the related leases or estimated useful lives of the assets, whichever is shorter.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired.

Intangible assets (exclusive of patents), arose primarily from acquisitions, and primarily consist of customer relationships, trademarks, licenses, and website and database content. Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized according to their estimated useful lives, which range from 4 to 15 years. Indefinite-lived intangibles are not amortized and are evaluated each reporting period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support their having an indefinite life. Indefinite-lived intangibles found to no longer have an indefinite life are evaluated for impairment and are then amortized over their remaining useful life as finite-lived intangible assets. Patents represent capitalized legal costs incurred in pursuing patent applications. When such applications result in an issued patent, the related capitalized costs are amortized over a ten year period or the life of the patent, whichever is shorter, using the straight-line method.

The Company reviews its issued patents and pending patent applications, and if it determines to abandon a patent application or that an issued patent no longer has economic value, the unamortized balance in deferred patent costs relating to that patent is immediately expensed.

Impairment testing for Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets

The Company tests goodwill annually as of the first day of the fourth quarter, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. In assessing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company determines that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company is not required to perform any additional tests in assessing goodwill for impairment. However, if the Company concludes otherwise or elects not to perform the qualitative assessment, then it identifies the reporting units and compares the fair value of each of these reporting units to their respective carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit is less than its fair value, no impairment exists. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit is higher than its fair value, the impairment charge is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. The Company performed a quantitative assessment in 2018 and 2017 and a qualitative assessment in 2016, and concluded there were no goodwill impairments.

The Company reviews the recoverability of the carrying value of long-lived assets (including intangible assets with finite lives) of a reporting unit for impairment annually as of the first day of the fourth quarter, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. Should indicators of impairment exist, the carrying values of the assets are evaluated in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the reporting unit. The net book value of the long lived asset is adjusted to fair value if its expected future undiscounted cash flow is less than its book value. There were no long-lived asset impairments in 2018, 2017 or 2016.

Comprehensive income (loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) consists of the Company’s consolidated net income (loss) and foreign currency translation adjustments. Foreign currency translation adjustments included in comprehensive income (loss) were not tax effected as investments in international affiliates are deemed to be permanent. Accumulated other comprehensive income is a separate component of stockholders’ equity and consists of the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments.

Shipping and Handling Costs

Shipping and handling costs associated with the distribution of finished goods to customers are recorded in cost of goods sold.

Research and Development

Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred.


All costs associated with advertising are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense, included in selling, general and administrative expense, approximated $580, $649 and $601 for the years ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under the liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. The liability method requires that any tax benefits recognized for net operating loss carry forwards and other items be reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the benefits may not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Under the liability method, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

It is the Company’s policy to provide for uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties based upon management’s assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. At July 31, 2018, the Company believes it has appropriately accounted for any unrecognized tax benefits. To the extent the Company prevails in matters for which a liability for an unrecognized tax benefit is established or is required to pay amounts in excess of the liability, the Company’s effective tax rate in a given financial statement period may be affected.

Segment Reporting

The Company separately reports information about each operating segment that engages in business activities from which the segment may earn revenues and incur expenses, whose separate operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker regarding allocation of resources and performance assessment and which exceed specific quantitative thresholds related to revenue and profit or loss. The Company’s operating activities are reported in three segments (see Note 15).

Net income (loss) per share

Basic net income (loss) per share represents net income (loss) divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The dilutive effect of potential common shares, consisting of outstanding stock options and unvested restricted stock, is determined using the treasury stock method. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding for fiscal 2018 and 2017 do not include the potential common shares from stock options and unvested restricted stock because to do so would have been antidilutive and as such is the same as basic weighted average shares outstanding for 2018 and 2017. For fiscal 2016, approximately 449,000 weighted average stock options were included in the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding. The number of potential common shares (“in the money options”) and unvested restricted stock excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding for the years ended July 31, 2018, and 2017 was 624,000, and 961,000, respectively.

For the years ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the effect of approximately 291,000, zero and 282,000 respectively, of outstanding “out of the money” options to purchase common shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share for the years ended July 31:

    2018     2017     2016  
Net (loss) income   $ (10,321 )   $ (2,504 )   $ 45,286  
Weighted-average common shares outstanding - basic     46,972       46,350       46,153  
Add: effect of dilutive stock options and restricted stock                 449  
Weighted-average common shares outstanding - diluted     46,972       46,350       46,602  
Net (loss) income per share – basic   $ (0.22 )   $ (0.05 )   $ 0.98  
Net (loss) income per share – diluted   $ (0.22 )   $ (0.05 )   $ 0.97  

Share-Based Compensation

The Company records compensation expense associated with stock options and restricted stock based upon the fair value of stock based awards as measured at the grant date. The Company determines the award values of stock options using the Black Scholes option pricing model.

The expense is recorded by amortizing the fair values on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, adjusted for forfeitures when they occur.

For the years ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, share-based compensation expense relating to the fair value of stock options, restricted shares and restricted stock units was approximately $813, $831, and $525, respectively (see Note 10). No excess tax benefits were recognized for the year ended July 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

The following table sets forth the amount of expense related to share-based payment arrangements included in specific line items in the accompanying statement of operations for the years ended July 31:

    2018     2017     2016  
Cost of clinical laboratory services   $     $ 6     $ 6  
Selling, general and administrative     813       825       519  
    $ 813     $ 831     $ 525  

As of July 31, 2018, there was $1,138 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested share-based payment arrangements granted under the Company’s incentive stock plans, which will be recognized over a weighted average remaining life of approximately twenty four months.

Effect of New Accounting Pronouncements

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which requires all excess tax benefits or deficiencies to be recognized as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement. In addition, excess tax benefits should be classified along with other income tax cash flows as an operating activity in the statement of cash flows. We adopted this standard in the fiscal year ended July 31, 2018. We recognize compensation expense by amortizing the fair values of awards on a straight basis over the vesting period, adjusted for forfeitures when they occur. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, regarding the accounting implications of the recently issued legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”). This standard is effective immediately. The update clarifies that in a company’s financial statements that include the reporting period in which the Act was enacted, the company must first reflect the income tax effects of the Act in which the accounting under U.S. GAAP is complete. These amounts would not be provisional amounts. The company would also report provisional amounts for those specific income tax effects for which the accounting under U.S. GAAP is incomplete but a reasonable estimate can be determined. We have recorded a provisional amount which we believe is a reasonable estimate of the effects of the Act on our financial statements as of July 31, 2018. Technical corrections or other forthcoming guidance could change how we interpret provisions of the Act, which may impact our effective tax rate and could affect our deferred tax assets, tax positions and/or our tax liabilities.

Pronouncements Issued but Not Yet Adopted

In May 2014, FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Topic 606. This ASU and its amendments supersede existing revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the revenue recognition standard is to require an entity to recognize as revenue the amount that reflects the consideration which it expects to be entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers control of to its customers.

We will adopt this ASU in the first quarter of our fiscal year beginning August 1, 2018 using the full retrospective method. We continue to assess the impact of this ASU on our results of operations, financial position, cash flows and disclosures. Based on our assessment of this ASU, the majority of the amounts that were historically classified as the provision for uncollectible accounts receivable, primarily related to patient responsibility, will be considered an implicit price concession in determining revenues from clinical laboratory services. Accordingly, we will report uncollectible balances associated with patient responsibility as a reduction of the transaction price and therefore as a reduction in revenues from clinical laboratory services, when historically these amounts were classified as the provision for uncollectible accounts receivable within operating costs and expenses. The residual balance of the provision for uncollectible accounts receivable will also be reclassified and included in selling, general and administrative expense. As a result of the adoption of this ASU, we preliminarily estimate the following impact to our consolidated statements of operations for the years ended July 31, 2018 and 2017:

Year Ended July 31, 2018   Year Ended July 31, 2017
Adjustment for
ASU on
Adjustment for
ASU on
Total Revenues $104,7133 $(3,700) - $101,013   $107,804 $(2,718) - $105,086
Provision for uncollectible accounts receivable 3,690 (3,700) $10 -   2,775 (2,718) $(57) -
Selling, general and administrative expenses 44,435 - (10) 44,425   44,092 - 57 44,149
Net loss $(10,321) - - $(10,321)   $(2,504) - - $(2,504)

In addition, the adoption of this ASU will result in increased disclosure, including qualitative and quantitative disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. However, the adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position or cash flows.

In February 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 – Leases (Topic 842), as amended. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new standard is effective for our fiscal year beginning August 1, 2019 including interim periods within that fiscal year. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. As amended in July 2018, an additional and optional transition method to adopt the new leases standard was established. Under this new transition method, an entity initially applies the new leases standard at the adoption date and recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. Consequently, an entity’s reporting for the comparative periods presented in the financial statements in which it adopts the new leases standard will continue to be in accordance with current GAAP (Topic 840, Leases).

We believe the adoption of this standard would materially impact our consolidated financial statements by significantly increasing our non-current assets and non-current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets if we record the right of use assets and related lease liabilities for our existing operating leases. We will recognize expense in the consolidated statement of operations similar to current lease accounting, in the cost of sales and selling, general and administrative.

In June 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326). This standard changes the impairment model for most financial instruments, including trade receivables, from an incurred loss method to a new forward-looking approach, based on expected losses. The estimate of expected credit losses will require entities to incorporate considerations of historical information, current information and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Adoption of this standard is required for our annual and interim periods beginning August 1, 2020 and must be adopted using a modified retrospective transition approach. We are currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this standard on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Scope of Modification Accounting which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. Adoption of this standard is required for our annual and interim periods beginning August 1, 2018 with the amendments in the update applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. Based on our preliminary assessment of the standard, we expect that any excess income tax benefits or deficiencies from stock-based compensation, which would be recognized as discrete items within income tax expense rather than additional paid in capital, would be offset by an equivalent adjustment to the deferred tax valuation allowance. Accordingly, we expect that the adoption of this standard will have no impact on our reported operations for the foreseeable future. In addition, we expect to continue to account for award forfeitures in the period they occur.

We reviewed all other recently issued accounting pronouncements and have concluded they are not applicable or not expected to be significant to the accounting for our operations.


Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.