Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Jul. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of significant accounting policies

Note 1 - Summary of significant accounting policies


Nature of business


Enzo Biochem, Inc. (the “Company”) is an integrated diagnostics, clinical lab, and life sciences company engaged in research, development, manufacturing and marketing of diagnostic and research products based on genetic engineering, biotechnology and molecular biology. These products are designed for the diagnosis of and/or screening for infectious diseases, cancers, genetic defects and other medically pertinent diagnostic information and are distributed in the United States and internationally. The Company is conducting research and development activities in the development of therapeutic products based on the Company’s technology platform of genetic modulation and immune modulation. The Company also operates a clinical laboratory that offers and provides molecular and esoteric diagnostic medical testing services in the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut medical communities. The Company operates in three segments (see Note 17).


Impact of COVID-19 pandemic


While the rate of transmission of COVID-19 fluctuates in the US and Europe, it continues to spread in other parts of the world and negatively impact the world economy. Federal, state and local governmental policies and initiatives designed to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 have resulted in, among other things, a significant reduction in physician office visits, the cancellation of elective medical procedures, customers of our products remaining closed or continuing to severely curtail their operations (voluntarily or in response to government orders), and the continuation of work-from-home or shelter-in-place policies. The COVID-19 impact on the Company’s operations is consistent with the overall industry and publicly issued statements from competitors, partners, and vendors.


During the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021, the Company generated substantial increases in COVID-19 related products and services. Enzo applied its technical expertise in molecular diagnostics to develop next generation COVID-19 diagnostic and antibody testing options which were approved under the FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). This testing had a positive impact on revenue, profitability and cash flow throughout fiscal 2021. Revenues from COVID-19 testing represented 48% and 8% of Clinical revenues in the 2021 and 2020 periods, respectively. However, it is too early to determine the long term significance of any positive impact from increased COVID-19 testing and our proprietary COVID-19 product offerings on our businesses.


The extent to which our businesses may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic will largely depend on both current and future developments, including its duration, the emergence and spread of variants, its treatment with authorized vaccines and vaccines in various stages of development and federal approval, work and travel advisories and restrictions, and the timing of their easing, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be reasonably predicted at this time. Global supply chain issues due to the pandemic continue to hamper both the manufacturing of products within the life science segment as well as testing capabilities in the clinical laboratory.


The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the Company’s business and consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows will depend on numerous evolving factors including, but not limited to: the magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, the extent to which it will impact worldwide macroeconomic conditions including, but not limited to, employment rates and health insurance coverage, the speed of the anticipated recovery, and governmental and business reactions to the pandemic. These factors are beyond the Company’s knowledge and control, and as a result, at this time the Company cannot reasonably estimate the adverse impact the COVID-19 pandemic will have on its businesses but the adverse impact could be material. The Company assessed certain accounting matters that generally require consideration of forecasted financial information in context with the information reasonably available to the Company and the unknown future impacts of COVID-19 as of July 31, 2021 and through the date of this report. The accounting matters assessed included, but were not limited to, the Company’s patient self-pay revenue concessions and credit losses in the Clinical Services segment, accounts receivable, inventories and the carrying value of goodwill and other long-lived assets. The Company’s future assessment of the magnitude and duration of COVID-19, as well as other factors, could result in additional material impacts to the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future reporting periods. We expect COVID-19 volume to decline in the quarters ahead as the percentage of Americans who are vaccinated increases. However, the emergence and spread of variants may cause our COVID-19 testing volume to increase again. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has moderated and the business and social distancing restrictions have eased, we may continue to experience similar adverse effects to our businesses, consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows resulting from a recessionary economic environment that may persist.


The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was passed in March 2020 and addressed the various economic impacts of, and otherwise responds to, the COVID-19 outbreak. Under the CARES Act, we received a loan, an advance payment, and two income grants from Medicare during the latter half of our fiscal year ended July 31, 2020, all of which are further described in Note 3, Note 8 and Note 10.


Principles of consolidation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Enzo Clinical Labs, Inc., Enzo Life Sciences, Inc. (and its wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries), Enzo Therapeutics, Inc., Enzo Realty LLC (“Realty”) and Enzo Realty II, LLC (“Realty II”). All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.




Contingencies are evaluated and a liability is recorded when the matter is both probable and reasonably estimable.  Gain contingencies are evaluated and not recognized until the gain is realizable or realized.


Foreign Currency Translation/Transactions


The Company has determined that the functional currency for its foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. For financial reporting purposes, assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at current exchange rates and profit and loss accounts are translated at weighted average exchange rates. Resulting translation gains and losses are included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity as accumulated other comprehensive income or loss. Gains or losses resulting from transactions entered into in other than the functional currency are recorded as foreign exchange gains and losses in the consolidated statements of operations.


Fair Value Measurements


The Company determines fair value measurements used in its consolidated financial statements based upon the exit price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants exclusive of any transaction costs, as determined by either the principal market or the most advantageous market. Inputs used in the valuation techniques to derive fair values are classified based on a three-level hierarchy. The basis for fair value measurements for each level within the hierarchy is described below with Level 1 having the highest priority and Level 3 having the lowest.


Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


Level 2 Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable in active markets.


Level 3 Valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable.


Cash and cash equivalents


Cash and cash equivalents consist of demand deposits with banks and highly liquid money market funds. At July 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents in foreign bank accounts of $909.

Marketable securities


The Company limits its credit risk associated with investments by investing in a mutual fund and an exchange traded fund (ETF) which hold highly rated corporate bonds, asset backed securities, municipal bonds, mortgage obligations and government obligations. These investments are classified as trading securities and are Level 1 fair value investments. As of July 31, 2021, the fair value of these investments was $29,978 and the cost basis was $30,061. We recognized unrealized losses of $83 for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021.

Concentration of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company believes the fair value of the aforementioned financial instruments approximates the cost due to the immediate or short-term nature of these items.


Concentration of credit risk with respect to the Company’s Life Sciences products segment is mitigated by the diversity of the Company’s customers and their dispersion across many different geographic regions. To reduce risk, the Company routinely assesses the financial strength of these customers and, consequently, believes that its accounts receivable credit exposure with respect to these customers is limited.


The Company believes that the concentration of credit risk with respect to the Clinical Laboratory services accounts receivable is mitigated by the diversity of third party payers that insure individuals. To reduce risk, the Company routinely assesses the financial strength of these payers and, consequently, believes that its accounts receivable credit risk exposure, with respect to these payers, is limited. While the Company also has receivables due from the Federal Medicare program, the Company does not believe that these receivables represent a credit risk since the Medicare program is funded by the federal government and payment is primarily dependent on our submitting the appropriate documentation.


Other than the Medicare program, two providers whose programs are included in the “Third party payers” and health maintenance organizations (“HMOs”) categories represent 35% of Clinical Services net revenue for the year ended July 31, 2021 and represent 27% of the Clinical Services net accounts receivable as of July 31, 2021. Other than the Medicare program, one provider whose programs are included in the “Third-party payers” and “Health Maintenance Organizations” (“HMO’s”) categories represents 24% and 36% of Clinical Services net revenue for the years ended July 31, 2020 and 2019 respectively, and represents 16% of the Clinical Services net accounts receivable as of July 31, 2020.


Accrual for Self-Funded Employee Medical Insurance


Accruals for self-funded employee medical insurance are determined based on a number of assumptions and factors, including historical payment trends, claims history and current estimates. These estimated liabilities are not discounted. If actual trends differ from these estimates, the financial results could be impacted.


Contractual Adjustment


The Company’s estimate of contractual adjustment is based on significant assumptions and judgments, such as its interpretation of payer reimbursement policies, and bears the risk of change. The estimation process is based on the experience of amounts approved as reimbursable and ultimately settled by payers, versus the corresponding gross amount billed to the respective payers. The contractual adjustment is an estimate that reduces gross revenue based on gross billing rates to amounts expected to be approved and reimbursed. Gross billings are based on a standard fee schedule the Company sets for all third-party payers, including Medicare, HMO’s and managed care providers. The Company adjusts the contractual adjustment estimate quarterly, based on its evaluation of current and historical settlement experience with payers, industry reimbursement trends, and other relevant factors which include the monthly and quarterly review of: 1) current gross billings and receivables and reimbursement by payer, 2) current changes in third party arrangements and 3) the growth of in-network provider arrangements and managed care plans specific to our Company.


During the years ended July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the contractual adjustment percentages, determined using current and historical reimbursement statistics, were approximately 83%, 88% and 88%, respectively, of gross billings.


Accounts Receivable


Accounts receivable are reported at realizable value, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, which is estimated and recorded in the period of the related revenue.


The Company’s ability to collect outstanding receivables from third-party payers is critical to its operating performance and cash flows. The primary collection risk lies with uninsured patients or patients for whom primary insurance has paid but a patient portion remains outstanding. In the case of COVID-19 diagnostic and antibody testing, collection risk for uninsured patients is minimized. Federal Reimbursement for Uninsured Patients Testing is processed by submitting a claim to the Health Resources and Services Administration COVID 19 Uninsured Program. This government program provides reimbursement to the Company for COVID-19 diagnostic and antibody testing provided to uninsured patients and requires specific information along with an attestation of attempts to obtain this information accurately in order to submit claims.  The program will perform its own validation process and there is required information about the patient that the Company must provide to be considered for reimbursement.


The Company also assesses the current state of its billing functions in order to identify any known collection issues and to assess the impact, if any, on the allowance estimates which involves judgment. The Company believes that the collectability of its receivables is directly linked to the quality of its billing processes, most notably, those related to obtaining the correct information in order to bill effectively for the services provided. Should circumstances change (e.g. shift in payer mix, decline in economic conditions or deterioration in aging of receivables), our estimates of net realizable value of receivables could be reduced by a material amount.


The Clinical Laboratory Services segment’s net receivables are detailed by billing category and as a percent to its total net receivables. At July 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 59% and 68% respectively, of the Company’s net accounts receivable relates to its Clinical Laboratory Services business, which operates in the New York, New Jersey and Connecticut medical communities.


The following is a table of the Company’s net accounts receivable by segment.


    July 31, 2021     July 31, 2020  
Net accounts receivable by segment   Amount     %     Amount     %  
Clinical Labs (by billing category)                        
Third party payers   $ 2,195       36     $ 2,455       40  
Patient self-pay     2,007       33       2,044       33  
Medicare     1,122       19       884       14  
HMO’s     692       12       797       13  
Total Clinical Labs     6,016       100 %     6,180       100 %
Total Life Sciences     4,182               2,961          
Total accounts receivable – net   $ 10,198             $ 9,141          




The Company values inventory at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value. Work-in-process and finished goods inventories consist of material, labor, and manufacturing overhead. Finished goods also include high throughput machines we intend to sell to laboratory customers. Write downs of inventories to net realizable value are based on a review of inventory quantities on hand and estimated sales forecasts based on sales history and anticipated future demand. Unanticipated changes in demand could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and require additional write downs of inventory which would impact our results of operations.


Property, plant and equipment


Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, and depreciated on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the various asset classes as follows: building and building improvements: 15-30 years; laboratory machinery and equipment, office furniture and computer equipment: 3-10 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the term of the related leases or estimated useful lives of the assets, whichever is shorter.


Goodwill and Intangible Assets


Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired.


Intangible assets (exclusive of patents), arose primarily from acquisitions, and primarily consist of customer relationships, trademarks, licenses, and website and database content. Our intangible assets are all finite-lived and are amortized according to their estimated useful lives, which range from 4 to 15 years. Patents represent capitalized legal costs incurred in pursuing patent applications. When such applications result in an issued patent, the related capitalized costs, if any, are amortized over a ten year period or the life of the patent, whichever is shorter, using the straight-line method. The Company reviews its issued patents and pending patent applications, and if it determines to abandon a patent application or that an issued patent no longer has economic value, the unamortized balance in deferred patent costs relating to that patent is immediately expensed.


Impairment testing for Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets


The Company tests goodwill annually as of the first day of the fourth quarter, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. In assessing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company determines that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company is not required to perform any additional tests in assessing goodwill for impairment. However, if the Company concludes otherwise or elects not to perform the qualitative assessment, then it identifies the reporting units and compares the fair value of each of these reporting units to their respective carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit is less than its fair value, no impairment exists. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit is higher than its fair value, the impairment charge is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. The Company performed a quantitative assessment in 2021, 2020 and 2019, and concluded there were no goodwill impairments.


The Company reviews the recoverability of the carrying value of long-lived assets (including its intangible assets, all of which have finite lives) of an asset or asset group for impairment annually as of the end of the fiscal year, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. Should indicators of impairment exist, the carrying values of the assets are evaluated in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of an asset or asset group. The net book value of the long lived asset is adjusted to fair value if its expected future undiscounted cash flow is less than its book value. There were no long-lived asset impairments in 2021, 2020 or 2019. Should the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic be significantly worse than currently expected, it is possible that we could incur impairment charges on goodwill and other long lived assets in the future.


Comprehensive income (loss)


Comprehensive income (loss) consists of the Company’s consolidated net income (loss) and foreign currency translation adjustments. Foreign currency translation adjustments included in comprehensive income (loss) were not tax effected as the Company has a full valuation allowance at July 31, 2021. Accumulated other comprehensive income is a separate component of stockholders’ equity and consists of the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments.


Shipping and Handling Costs


Shipping and handling costs associated with the distribution of finished goods to customers are recorded in cost of goods sold.


Research and Development


Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred.




All costs associated with advertising are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense, included in selling, general and administrative expense, approximated $400, $437 and $374 for the years ended July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under the liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. The liability method requires that any tax benefits recognized for net operating loss carry forwards and other items be reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the benefits may not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.


Under the liability method, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.


It is the Company’s policy to provide for uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties based upon management’s assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. At July 31, 2021, the Company believes it has appropriately accounted for any unrecognized tax benefits. To the extent the Company prevails in matters for which a liability for an unrecognized tax benefit is established or is required to pay amounts in excess of the liability, the Company’s effective tax rate in a given financial statement period may be affected.


Segment Reporting


The Company separately reports information about each operating segment that engages in business activities from which the segment may earn revenues and incur expenses, whose separate operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker regarding allocation of resources and performance assessment and which exceed specific quantitative thresholds related to revenue and profit or loss. The Company’s operating activities are reported in three segments (see Note 17).


Net income (loss) per share


Basic net income (loss) per share represents net income (loss) divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The dilutive effect of potential common shares, consisting of outstanding stock options and unvested restricted stock, is determined using the treasury stock method. For fiscal 2021 and 2019, approximately 134,000 and 125,000 respectively, of weighted average stock options were included in the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding for fiscal 2020 does not include the potential common shares from stock options and unvested restricted stock because to do so would have been antidilutive and as such is the same as basic weighted average shares outstanding for 2020. The number of potential common shares (“in the money options”) and unvested restricted stock excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding for the year ended July 31, 2020 was 40,000.


For the years ended July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the effect of approximately 1,465,000, 1,904,000 and 1,324,000 respectively, of outstanding “out of the money” options to purchase common shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share for the years ended July 31:


    2021     2020     2019  
Net income (loss)   $ 7,875     $ (28,520 )   $ 2,489  
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – basic     48,191       47,696       47,351  
Add: effect of dilutive stock options and restricted stock     134      
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – diluted     48,325       47,696       47,476  
Net (loss) income per share – basic   $ 0.16     $ (0.60 )   $ 0.05  
Net (loss) income per share – diluted   $ 0.16     $ (0.60 )   $ 0.05  


Share-Based Compensation


The Company records compensation expense associated with stock options and restricted stock based upon the fair value of stock based awards as measured at the grant date. The Company determines the award values of stock options using the Black Scholes option pricing model. The expense is recognized by amortizing the fair values on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, adjusted for forfeitures when they occur.


For the years ended July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, share-based compensation expense relating to the fair value of stock options, restricted shares and restricted stock units was approximately $907, $923 and $939, respectively (see Note 12). During the year ended July 31, 2020, the Company issued common stock as employee compensation in the amount of $10. No excess tax benefits were recognized for the year ended July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.

The following table sets forth the amount of expense related to share-based payment arrangements included in specific line items in the accompanying statement of operations for the years ended July 31:


    2021     2020     2019  
Cost of clinical laboratory services   $ 93     $ 46     $  
Selling, general and administrative     814       887       939  
    $ 907     $ 933     $ 939  


As of July 31, 2021, there was $755 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested share-based payment arrangements granted under the Company’s incentive stock plans, which will be recognized over a weighted average remaining life of approximately fifteen months.


Effect of New Accounting Pronouncements


Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements


On August 1, 2019, the Company adopted a new accounting standard issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) on accounting for leases using the modified retrospective method. This new accounting standard requires a lessee to recognize an asset and liability for most leases on its balance sheet. The Company elected the optional transition method that allowed for a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings recorded on August 1, 2019 and did not restate previously reported results in the comparative periods. The Company also elected the package of practical expedients, which among other things, allowed it to carry forward its historical lease classification.


As a result of adoption of the new standard, the Company recorded right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities of approximately $24.4 million and $25.1 million, respectively as of August 1, 2019. The operating lease liability was determined based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments and the right-of-use asset was determined based on the value of the lease liability, adjusted for deferred rent balances of approximately $0.7 million, which were previously included in accrued expenses. There was no cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. Accounting for the Company’s finance leases remains substantially unchanged. The adoption of the new standard did not materially impact the Company’s consolidated results of operations or cash flows. The adoption of this new accounting standard resulted in increased qualitative and quantitative disclosures regarding the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases.


The Company elected the package of three practical expedients. As such, the Company did not reassess whether expired or existing contracts are or contain a lease and did not need to reassess the lease classifications or reassess the initial direct costs associated with expired or existing leases. The Company did not elect the hindsight practical expedient. Further, the land easement practical expedient was not elected as the practical expedient is not applicable to the Company. The Company elected to take the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components of all asset classes entered into or modified after the effective date. For further details, see Note 9.

Pronouncements Issued but Not Yet Adopted


In June 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326). This standard changes the impairment model for most financial instruments, including trade receivables, from an incurred loss method to a new forward-looking approach, based on expected losses.

The estimate of expected credit losses will require entities to incorporate considerations of historical information, current information and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Adoption of this standard is required for our annual and interim periods beginning August 1, 2023, provided we qualify as a smaller reporting company at the end of fiscal 2022 and must be adopted using a modified retrospective transition approach. We are currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this standard on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.


In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12 Income Taxes (Topic 740) Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The amendments in the ASU simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles of Topic 740. The amendments also improve consistent application of and simplify U.S. GAAP for other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. The amendments in this ASU are required for our annual and interim periods beginning August 1, 2021. The adoption of the amendments in this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows


We reviewed all other recently issued accounting pronouncements and have concluded they are not applicable or not expected to be significant to the accounting for our operations.




Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.